Determinants of Conflicts Coping Strategies among Farmers and Pastoralists in Kilosa and Kiteto Districts, Tanzania
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ABSTRACT: Natural resource use conflict is a global issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, such conflicts can be extreme; even resulting into deaths of individuals. There is a plethora of literature exploring the causes and effects of such conflicts. The study explored farmers-pastoralists coping strategies to natural resource use conflicts and determinants of these strategies. To answer the above objectives, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with stakeholders in Kilosa and Kiteto Districts in Tanzania to establish the understanding of the issue and its local context. A stratified random sample of pastoralists (n=143) and farmers (n=230) was selected to quantify responses to conflict. The finding show that conflicts were quite extreme and included cases of physical violence including setting fire on the farms. Those affected were forced to buy food or rely on relatives and wider social networks (including local government) to provide practical support. Emotional support from relatives and social networks and from religious organisations was also important. Male-headed, larger, and younger households were more likely to use coping strategies (p <0.05) than female-headed, smaller, and older households. Also, land ownership is likely to increase the use of strategies for coping with conflicts among households. Therefore, it is recommended that people in the areas affected by conflicts should be encouraged to own land, have proper land planning and use in order to minimize natural resource use conflicts among actors especially farmers and pastoralists. Additionally, the design of rules and regulations should be informed by the actual coping strategies adopted by farmers and pastoralists.