Land Conflicts in Mkoka and Songambele Wards in Kongwa District, Tanzania: Causes, Impacts, and Resolutions
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted toexamine the factors that have contributed to the causes, impact and resolutions of farmer-pastoralists conflict on land in Kongwa district, Tanzania. Conflicts between farmers and pastoralists have been escalating and are becoming economically and socially unbearable. Respondents of the study included villagers, members of village land committees and members of land tribunals in Mkoka and Songambele wards, Kongwa district. Focus group discussions were conducted to collect information on conflict causes and resolution mechanisms. Major factors between farmers and pastoralists conflicts were found to include policy deficiencies, insecurity of land tenure, inadequacy of capacity to the local institutions, corrupt practices, inadequate capacity in village land use planning. The study concludes that the root cause of the conflicts is the lack of security of land tenure to smallholder farmers and pastoralists who hold and use unsurveyed land. The government has to review its land policy to ensure security of land tenure, land grabbing and corrupt practices to prevent further conflicts.